Programmes of measures under the water framework directive – a comparative case study

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The water framework directive requires programmes of measures composed by the Member States, in order to achieve its environmental objectives. This article examines three programmes of measures for river basins in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, with a focus on the differences in how the programmes direct the authorities’ activities with regard to water management. It concludes that there are major differences in the precision of the measures, the range of legal instruments used, and in the focus on active and direct management of the aquatic environment. The Danish programme seems to facilitate the establishment of an adaptive management, whereas the Swedish and Norwegian programmes seem to take a more integrative approach.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNordic Environmental Law Journal
Pages (from-to)31-52
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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