Dietary regulation of hepatic triacylglycerol content: the role of eucaloric carbohydrate restriction with fat or protein replacement

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Accumulation of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) is highly associated with impaired whole-body insulin-glucose homeostasis and dyslipidemia. The summarized findings from human intervention studies investigating the effect of reduced dietary carbohydrate and increased fat intake (and in studies also increased protein) while maintaining energy intake at eucaloric requirements reveal a beneficial effect of carbohydrate reduction on hepatic TG content in obese individuals with steatosis and indices of insulin resistance. Evidence suggests that the reduction of hepatic TG content following reduced intake of carbohydrate and increased fat/protein intake in humans results from regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism within the liver, with an increase in hepatic FA oxidation and ketogenesis, together with a concomitant downregulation of FA synthesis from de novo lipogenesis. The adaptations in hepatic metabolism may result from reduced intrahepatic monosaccharide and insulin availability, reduced glycolysis and increased FA availability when carbohydrate intake is reduced.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvances in Nutrition
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1359-1373
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Faculty of Science - NAFLD, MAFLD, Fatty liver, Diet, Steatosis, Carbohydrate, Fatty acids, Fatty acid oxidation

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