PhD Projects

PhD on the Workings of Market Economic Regulation in the Global South; Adoption, Communication, Interpretation and Enforcement.

In the Global South governments have increasingly introduced market economic regulation means national and local state-sanctioned governance aimed at ensuring well-functioning markets. At least three areas of market economic regulation central in this regard: (1) dismantling formal and informal fiscal barriers, (2) aligning product re­quirements, and (3) protecting free and fair competition. However, the notion of ‘market economic regu­la­tion’ may leave a deceptive impression of clarity, whereas in reality it is rather ambiguous. There are nu­­merous ways of drafting such regulation, of disseminating it to authorities and the broader public, of construing the provisions, and of enforcing them. Therefore, we welcome applications for a PhD who wants to understand the history of the ap­­plicable market economic regulation (including also of those provisions that were not adopted); who wants to map how they have been communicated to the different stakeholders – including both public au­­thorities and citizens; who wants to clarify how they are interpreted in different circumstances, and in this respect to compare this interpretation with the drafters’ stated intentions; and who will cla­­ri­fy how they are enforced.

We expect the prospective PhD student to choose one or a few case-countries – and to justify this choice in the project application.

The examinations must take into account both spatial and temporal di­mensions – meaning that the findings are likely to vary both in time and place. For example, it is likely that the market economic regulation is assigned a different role during a crisis (eg a drought), and it is also likely that the regulation plays very different roles in urban and rural settings.

For more, contact prof. Morten Broberg

Technology, Crime and Criminology

There is a growing degree of zealousness with which governments and the private sector are embracing and experimenting with radical new technologies such as ‘smart city’ protocols, autonomous security/police robots, ‘social credit/sorting’ applications and other forms of AI-based surveillance and social control. These (often) unchecked and unregulated technological innovations, while often socially-beneficial, also provide new opportunity structures for criminal exploitation. However, as currently configured, the discipline of criminology, based as it is on models of human behaviour and theories of crime and deviance devised in the mid-twentieth century, is poorly equipped to deal with many of the criminological challenges posed by such new technology. The Centre for International Law, Conflict and Crisis thus welcomes applications for PhD scholarships that will address this lacuna, and in particular offer new modes of analysis and ways of thinking about the interface of crime and networked technology.  

For more, contact Professor Keith Hayward

Mass surveillance and the right to a private life

Is mass surveillance compatible with the human right to respect for private life? The Internet has paved the way for much more intrusive forms of surveillance of communication. The storage of communications recordings or even just communications data in vast amounts makes it possible for authorities to draw an intimate profile of individuals. As an important tool in the fight against crime, terrorism and other threats, surveillance has increasingly become general (mass surveillance) rather than targeted, thus (potentially) affecting every single individual. The storage and use of communications material interferes with the right to respect for private life and communication. Recent years has seen landmark judgments by both the Human Rights Court in Strasbourg and the EU Court of Justice in Luxembourg on mass surveillance/interception. While both courts require sufficient guarantees against abuse, they seem to differ as regards the fundamental compatibility of mass surveillance with the right to private life and communication. This project is about a human rights analysis of mass surveillance, with special emphasis on (critical?) analyses of the European landmark cases of recent years, and with a possible comparative outlook to US Supreme Court case law in the field.

For more, contact Professor Jens Elo Rytter

Value-oriented approach to governing AI

The regulation of technological change faces different challenges that undercut its robustness. On the one hand, industry advocates champion a model of responsive regulation where technological development is accorded precedence and regulators are left scrambling to respond in the aftermath of deployment. On the other hand, uncertainty as to the trajectory of technological development hampers attempts to regulate before technological maturation, which is also criticised for stifling innovation. The Collingridge dilemma also plays a practical effect in limiting effective regulation to technological change.

This project suggests that the governance of AI needs to be anchored upon commonly shared core values. Thus, the development and deployment of AI must not negatively impact society, or its developmental trajectory, while attempts should be made to enable individual and societal flourishing through the introduction of these technologies.

For more, contact Associate Professor Hin-Yan Liu.

Artificial Intelligence and Legal Disruption

Technological change holds the potential to interrupt, disrupt or distort the ordinary legal order, and this project aims to provide an overarching framework capable of structuring legal responses to the introduction of artificial intelligence into society. Rather than seeing the sectorial impact of AI, for example in changing the nature of transportation with autonomous vehicles, or the nature of warfare through autonomous weapons systems, this project views the fundamental challenges to the very foundations of legal principles and processes introduced by AI in more holistic terms. Such an approach holds the potential to offer common denominator solutions to the vast array of AI challenges to the contemporary legal order, and could offer an analogy for responding to the regulatory problems triggered by other emerging technologies. 

While these concepts and approaches are being developed here to relative maturity, projects that offer different approaches to the regulation or governance of technological change (preferably, but not limited to AI) are most welcome.

For more, contact Associate Professor Hin-Yan Liu.

War and Property in Early Modern Public International Law

Public law revolves around the protection of private property. A wealth of scholarship exists that explores the role that property has played in the development of constitutional law. The importance of property for the development of early modern international law remains, however, little understood, despite the fact that the protection of property is at the heart of the most influential early modern treatise on international law: Hugo Grotius’ De Jure Belli ac Pacis. The questions that would need to be considered include the following: what is the role of property in the Grotian bifurcation of law into public law and public international law? How does property condition his theorisation of war? And what are the most important implications for public law theory of Grotius’ work?

CILCC invites proposals for research that seeks to explore these questions. All methodological approaches are welcome.

For more, contact Associate Professor Amnon Lev

Armed conflict as a legal concept

The emergence of novel technologies, novel means of coercion and novel actors raise a host of questions about the concept of an armed conflict in international law. We invite proposals on research within the field of the laws of armed conflict/ international humanitarian law on the contemporary regulation / conceptualization of armed conflict.

For more, contact Professor (WSR) Anders Henriksen

Attribution and extreme events

At present around a thousand climate change-related litigations run around the globe. Simultaneously, science is making new breakthroughs in our ability to attribute climate change to concrete extreme events. This potentially opens the door to new legal claims and discussions. Research into basic concepts as well as ongoing cases are needed to understand the potential legal implications.

For more, contact Associate Professor Kristian Cedervall Lauta

Natural disasters and human rights

As natural disasters increasingly are understood and approached as the result of human, social processes - a number of central issues arise within human rights law. Projects could include implications for, for example, the freedom of information, right to life or property rights.

For more, contact Associate Professor Kristian Cedervall Lauta